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As you may or may not know this past year I have been studying for my BSc Network Systems.

I have now got my results back and my overall result is a 2:1.

Pretty PHP File Lister

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While I was developing a site for someone, it required a File and folder lister it also required to look pretty with icons and stuff.

So I have developed some code which you can download (

It is just the raw first version of the code, replace ‘archive.php‘ with what ever your php page is and change ‘archive‘ with the folder that is required to be listed.

I will try to refine the code at a later date.

untar stuff

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Quick guide to remember

untar .tar.gz / .tgz

user@computer:$ tar -xvzf file.tar.gz

untar .tar.bz2

user@computer:$ tar -xvjf file.tar.bz2

untar .tar

user@computer:$ tar -xvf file.tar

Remember, z = gz, j = bz2 and nothing for no algorithm.

WINS and Linux

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What is WINS?

WINS is NetBIOS names over TCP/IP. It is what allows Microsoft Windows machines to contact each other via their Computer name from instances i.e.


In a domestic network setup, the computer names are not included in a local DNS server and so this is where WINS comes in.

WINS & Linux

Linux doesn’t try to contact other computers with their WINS names by default so the following will activate this.

root@computer:$ apt-get -y install winbind
apt-get -y install -f
nano /etc/nsswitch.conf

Search for the line starting with hosts (ie “hosts: files dns”)

Change it too: hosts: files wins dns

Press [CTRL] + [X] hit [Y] and then [ENTER]

root@computer:$ /etc/init.d/networking restart

You should now be able to ping a Windows Computer name.

PuTTY and .pem

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I was beta testing out an OVH cloud server and to login initially, you were required to use a .pem authentication key, this would be fine from a Linux box as you could just execute SSH like this

ssh -i key.pem user@computer

but with Windows, this becomes a problem as Windows doesn’t have native SSH support and the best SSH client for windows is PuTTY but PuTTY doesn’t support pem files. Luckily, someone thought of this and so PuTTYgen was born but unluckily, not everybody knows about this.

  1. Download PuTTYgen
  2. Startup PuTTYgen
  3. Click load
  4. Choose your .pem file
  5. Click OK
  6. Click save Private Key

And that should be it.